Lecture 30 : Interviewing for Employment

Lecture 30 : Interviewing for Employment


Hello friends, so we are in the last phase
of this course at least theoretically wise in terms of the classroom lectures. Today we are going to start the third phase
of the employment communication process and that is personal interviews. We have for you today lecture-30, interviewing
for Employment. An interviewing has been in fact studied in
this class from both side of the desk, remember that as candidates as applicants this is one
side of the story, the other is the side of preparation the other side of the table belongs
to the interviewee. The one who represents the organization or
the recruitment agency or the company who is trying to induct you on their payrolls. So, interviewing from both sides of the desk,
this is what we will be talking about in lecture 30. So, the concepts I will be covering in this
lecture first of all we define the interview and then we think about we consider the two
questions, how do you feel about interviews in terms of are you suffering from interview
anxiety or not, and if not why, if yes why. We go in and go great detail on the hiring
interview and we consider diversity as a parameter, when we study the interview. To move further, we will be covering technology
and the use of technology in job search. We will look at the legal aspect of interviewing,
where illegal questions are asked and what you should do in such circumstances. We will have a small program, before we end
we will have a small program or small prescription on how to increase your effectiveness in interviews
some guidelines and we will close with the summary. So, we define an interview as that which is
beyond conversation, it is of course conversation, but it is more than that. The interview has been defined as the most
common type of purposeful, planned, decision-making, person-to-person communication. Just a small interruption, person-to-person
communication is also and generally is the case in interview. So, the interview I repeat once again is the
most common type of purposeful, the purpose is to induct, the purpose is to choose the
best candidates for the job vacancies available. Number two planned, the interviewers have
planned how to move about the 10 minutes of 5 minutes the interview will take place and
you also have planned prepared your answers, thinking that they might ask such answers,
such questions sorry. Then we have a decision-making, because you
as an interviewee have to decide whether you will take the call, whether you will join
that company or not; post the interview or towards the end of the interview being concluded. And they as employers or recruiters also have
to take the decision; whether they will take you, whether they were select you or not. So, now the question of what is an interview
can also be studied under the heading of purposes and goals. What are the purposes for which the interviews
are held and what are the goals, which the recruiter wants to meet through holding. The types of interviews as 6 given. The first is the information-gathering interview,
the second the appraisal interview, the third the persuasive interview, the fourth the exit
interview, the fifth the counseling interview and the last and sixth is the hiring interview,
which is our matter of concern and consideration in this lecture series on employment communication. So, the information-gathering interview is
designed to collect information and opinions or data and we will give you example of that
very soon. The appraisal interview is that which is designed,
which is geared towards the evaluation of the candidates or who are being interviewed
the interviewees. The third one, the persuasive interview is
designed to influence attitudes of behavior, these are those kind of interviews which are
conducted by ad agencies or people in the media; because they want to influence the
attitude or behavior of the customer or the client and make them buy their product or
service more on that in few slides from now. Now, the fourth way exit interview is that
which is designed to determine why someone is leaving a position. You see, we commonly speaking we say that
in fact, nobody is indispensable in an organization, but the point is if there is somebody who
is very good, very productive, very cordial and has a good track record, a career record
in the company or the organization. And is planning to leave, an exit interview
is conducted to determine why he or she is planning to leave the position in the company. Then we have the fifth one, which is the counseling
interview it is designed to provide guidance. It is the kind of interviews which are held
in counseling centers, where the person who has issue with perhaps going into the regressive
cycle is counseled, so that he can come out of his mental issues or problems and become
mentally healthy, back to life normal life. The sixth and last is that which we will deal
at great length and get depth, this is the hiring interview and it is designed to select
the right person for the job. Now, we have the examples of the six types
of interviews. The first is the interviews conducted at experts
to complete an assignment, interviews conducted for the popular media that is the information-gathering
interview. The second is that, interview in which the
interviewer is superior from management, expectations and behaviors are brought closer together. The third is the sales interview, sales people
with customers. The fourth is the employee and the employer,
to refine the hiring process, to help prevent other employees from leaving or merely to
make the departure a more pleasant experience for both, so that if required if in future
time or situation requires, then that person can be called back to the company, which he
had left; the fourth is the exit interview. And the fifth is the counseling interview;
it is conducted by someone who has special training in psychology be made be clinical
psychology or mental health, mental psychology. And this is a person having had a specific
degree, required for guiding and supporting the candidate or the interviewee, the one
who is having issues with his or her mental health. The last one the sixth is the hiring interview
and it is designed the example is that it is the purpose of this hiring interview is
to fill up an employment position. So, now we come to the question which you
can ask yourself, how do you feel about interviews? And mostly people will be very nervous and
anxious before the interview, but there may be some situation, where somebody may not
be nervous or you know concerned or troubled about the interview, about the forthcoming
interview. And this is actually a problem, this is not
actually good, it does not speak of overconfidence, because over confidence may take you in the
wrong direction at the time of the actual interview. The point is that not being concerned at all
about participating an interview is just as much of a problem as being a nervous wreck. So, you have to find a balance, you must be
concerned, you must be slightly worried, but you must not be overly worried or you must
not be not at all worried, the middle path is the prescription. So, let us come to business and here we have
for you the hiring interview. Now, we have already done the few stages,
which go before you reach this stage of the hiring interview. The preliminary task before you plan for hiring
interviews to prepare the cover letter and the resume. Cover letter and CV writing which was the
first phase of the employment process and the resume we have just done it, but we need
a quick revision consists of the following parts. The first on top with the contact information
followed by job objective or carrier goals, then you have your employment history and
educational qualifications followed by relevant professional certifications and affiliations,
sixth is community service or your work with other than your company NGO and NPO; Non Profit
Organizations, and seventh is your special skills and interest and the eighth and the
last part of the CV is the references. A list of referees who will be able to stand
behind you who will give more information and data and maybe they will support your
candidature for the post. They will be able to speak at length on you,
because they know you quite well; either at your university or college years or at your
workplace. Here is a simple cover letter on this slide
and you can look it at length later on. And this is sample resume, on the next slide
and this you can also look at it later on. So, before we go to business, I would like
to show you this short funny video on the origin of job interviews. So, you want to join tribe? What do you do? Me hunter, we hunt together. You hunt together. These days man need many skills. Yeah, where you see yourself in fifty moons
time? Hunting, may be gathering. Why you leave last tribe? They small tribe. Me ready for something bigger. How long you with last tribe? Ten moon. Ten moon. Me hear you leave after two moons? Me hear you leave and travel round plains
with your friend. It’s true? Me know tribe chief, he tell me. Me just want to see plain. Me got that out of system now. We be in touch. CV broke. It going to a long day people. So, we will move further to the hiring interview,
after the short break. So, first of all let us come to the structure
or the stages of the interview. So, as the subtitle of this class interviewing
from both side of the desk, it means that effective interviews have to be well-structured,
well planned, well staged, well faced interactions between interviewee or interviewee with interviewers. So, there are three parts to a planned interview. First is a beginning, which provides a direction
or an inkling or an idea to what is to come in phase two. Then of course, phase two the middle where
which is the heart of the interview. So, here the participants settle down and
really serious matters are discussed. And lastly the conclusion or the end, when
the main points are reviewed and the participants take leave of one another. So, let us come to questions because, the
question which is most important or prior most in your minds is how to answer questions. So, first let us introduce you to the kind
of questions, which are asked; and there are four types of questions which are asked. For the first set of questions which are asked;
in the first couple of questions which are asked may be, closed questions and open questions. Now, what do we mean by closed questions? Closed questions are questions, which are
answerable with a simple yes or no or in a few brief words. For example, what is your age? Are you in employment now? Either the answer is yes, no; it cannot be
other than that; Are you married? Yes, no; How many years have you worked? Maybe 10, 20, 15, but so in a few words are
yes, no type of questions these are closed questions, because thereafter you cannot move
further. Then there are open questions and these are
those type of questions, which are the opposite of the closed questions, because they offer
the interviewees or the interviewee freedom to extend the scope of the answer. So, there is an open question and you give
an answer and it leads to another open question, another answer, another open question. So, the interviewee has the scope and the
agility the wish if he wishes, he can ask, he can extend the scope of the question based
on the answer and ask further questions. So, let us come to the next question, which
are the next type of questions, which are the primary questions and the secondary questions. The primary questions are used to introduce
topics or explore a new area. Suppose, the interviewer has already questioned
you on your educational history and now says, how many years have you been working with
company XYZ. So, this is a primary question, because now
you are going to talk about your employment history with company XYZ. Then we have secondary questions and if you
take the analogy of a river, you know you have a tributary and a distributary, is not
it? So, similarly primary and secondary questions. Secondary questions are those, which taper
or which come out of the primary questions. So, the final advice is whatever the type
of question with the open or closed or primary or secondary as an interviewee, you must be
honest and answer truthfully with complete honesty. Now, we come to the objectives of the hiring
interview in terms of roles and responsibilities on both sides, since interviewing is being
studied from both sides of the desk. So, the first point is that, if you think
about your role and responsibility as an interviewer or later in life you may be interviewer, now
you are an interviewee. The point is both work very hard during the
interview, because at the same time they are functioning as information seeker, information
giver and decision makers. I have a small diagram in the next chart to
show you, how this is happening. So, to be a successful interviewer or an interviewee
requires a specific preparation it goes both ways. This is the small diagram and in this diagram,
we are studying the roles and responsibilities of an interviewer and interviewee, in the
course of an interview. So, the interviewer is the information seeker,
but towards the fag end of the interview you can ask the interviewer some questions about
expected date when the results will be disclosed or made available to you, what are your career
options in the company. So, these loads will get interchange in the
first part and the second part of the interview, the interviewee is simply an information giver. And on the other hand, you have both taking
decisions and both may be interchanging roles and this is finally, the job towards which
both are moving. So, what are the types of hiring interviews
there are three types. The first is the behavioral interview, where
an employer is looking for the employee to provide specific examples or specific skills. So, if you consider a human being, who is
a unique personality a unique person on this planet. All of us have specific areas, which are our
strengths, specific abilities in which we flourish and therefore, a behavioral interview
to tap on this aspect of your character or your personality. Then you have the case interview, where they
want to test your analytical ability and your decision-making, time management so on and
so forth. So, the interviewee is presented with the
business case it is fictitious study, which is a fictitious situation and the employer
is able to ask you to work through it and come to a solution on the questions. Then you have the stress interview. The stress interview is not actually specially
an interview held for making you stressed, but the point is in a stress interview, there
is one candidate and more than one person may be firing questions. So, before the candidate or the interview
is through with answering one question or maybe he wants to say something more, another
question is shot at him and he has to respond back. So, the situation is stressful for the interviewee,
because he is being bombarded with questions from all sides, the board the interview board
is more than one person. Now, the hiring interview what you have to
do is manage your impression as a job applicant. On the other hand the interviewer also has
to manage the impression. If the interviewing is to be effective and
goal oriented result driven. The point is today you are a job applicant;
some time in your life you will be an interviewer, whatever it is learn from now. Even the interviewers have to learn how to
read, how to read the candidate, how to give the correct impact. So that, when the candidate or the job applicant
goes out, then he or she is not having a negative feeling or a feeling of despondency or depressing
you know, experience with the company. So, both sides have to manage the impressions,
they cast or they create or they in fact impact on each other, in order for the interview
to be effective and productive and pleasant first of all. So, if we consider now the issue of diversity,
because we have workplace today which is having a flat organizational structure more and more
the workplaces have becoming stat flat organizational structures not tapering with one leader and
maybe two deputies and so on and so forth; more and more, there is democracy and transparency
at the workplace. And number two, it is a global village and
we have MNCs everywhere, we have Indian students working abroad, we have students from our
candidates from other countries working in our country. We have working through the video conferencing
mode, through the web conferencing mode at various times of the day, all 24 hours or
hours of the day people somewhere are working across the internet and the facilitate offers
of the digital media and the high speed internet. So, you will be working with people of different
cultures. Now this diversity, what is the relation of
diversity to interview. So, since we belong to a culture, then we
should be able to understand how we will conduct ourselves, how we will behave during the course
of the interview, because our cultures are tradition bound, because our cultures do not,
in fact promote an open display of feelings and emotions before, because our culture promotes
or tells us to be deferential and full of respect to the person in power or position. And you know of course that the person sitting,
across the other side of the table is powerful or in a position, because first of all he
is representing the organization and you are trying to get a job in that organization and
he is sitting in a position from where he can employ you. Therefore, our culture makes us deferential
and makes us respectful and on our best behavior verbally, non-verbally; when we have the interview
in progress or when the interview is in conduct. Now, think about the second point here, there
are gender and age differences in what employees seek in a job. So, imagine yourself in a situation where
you are being interviewed by an old lady and we have a video which we will be sharing in
the next lecture class where we will study this kind of situation. And so how would this two, how would this
two, parameters of gender and age differences across again another parameter called cultural
diversity. Make you aware of how to behave or how to
seek or how to be active during the interview process. How to tackle this situation of culture difference,
gender difference and age difference during the interviewing process during the hiring
interview. Next we come to technology in the job search
and this is very important in today’s world, because of the high role and high incidence
of the impact of technology in our lives day in and day out, especially in the workplace. So, the web is changing the way in which we
find jobs. Now finding jobs are much fast paced and there
is too much of information available. We need to really see the information properly,
when we are actually trying to search or find a job. You see the point is that if you are still
tradition bound or of the old type of mentality or fashion that you are going to search for
papers or newspapers like, employment news and weekly employment news. The point is that job openings are posted
online much before they appear in the hard copy newspaper. So, the point which you need to understand
is that we have to be current; we have to be up to date with the online job portals,
because we cannot wait for the last date to be over is in it; we cannot wait for the last
date to be over, we have to be on time in applying for the job within the last date. And the second point is that the employers
are using computers to add flexibility to currently available interviewing channels. So, we will be talking about virtual interviews,
just as I think we are also in an age, when you have a video resume. If you go to online writing lab, just note
it OWL. Just type OWL and you will get online writing
lab of Purdue University, where you have a section on how to prepare your video resume. So, if you have a video resume and you have
a video link of your resume in to your LinkedIn page or your academia page. The point is on the other hand on the other
side of the desk you have the employers, who are also using digital media and digital mode
to add flexibility to the way in which they are interviewing you. You must have heard about the Skype interview,
but you must also be aware that there are some mobile applications, which the employer
will ask you to in fact upload on your android or your iOS and after that mobile application
is with you, only then the interview will proceed. So, let us be up to date with these new media
and the new technologies in our job search attempts. Now, look at the legal aspect of interviews. Sometimes questions are asked which are very
touchy, which should not be asked, because they are illegal, they are on the wrong side
of the law. And in America, we have EEOC which stands
for Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, this is a body or a regulatory body which
in fact issues employment interview guidelines. So, it says which questions are legal and
ethical to be asked and which are illegal. Now, this is also a commission or a body or
an organization which protects candidates from answering questions related to race,
ethnicity, marital status, age, sex, sexual orientation, disability and arrest records. So, just note that these are illegal questions. And in case you are asked such illegal questions,
how will you handle it. The first way out if you are asked illegal
questions on those topics which I mentioned in the previous slide is that you can object
diplomatically softly, gently, but yet strongly. And you can remind the interviewer that the
question is illegal, inappropriate. Out of context not related to the matter at
hand; no way related to the job which you are going to take up with the organization
in the event of your selection. And the second is to respond to illegal question
with only information, which you can give legally. Had a legal notice asked you for an information,
you would have given a legal response. So, give that kind of legal response to an
illegal question. So, how do you increase your effectiveness
in interviews and here are some guidelines for that first of all be prepared with all
your documents, with all your transcripts, have multiple copies of all. Then practice sending and receiving messages
verbal and non-verbal. Demonstrate effective listening skills, listening
we have had two classes, two lectures on listening. Again and again we are emphasizing the importance
of listening skills at the time of the interview, you have to be a very good listener. Read the chapter, read the lectures go through
the two lectures on listening skills once again and be prepared for interview and you
know best in listening. Have conviction of whatever you are saying,
do not backtrack, say something and stand by it. The next is to be flexible also like a leader
you have to be convinced as well as flexible at the same time. Be observant of the verbal and non-verbal
behavior of the interview board in front of you, if the offer is made to you during the
last phase or in the last few seconds or minutes of the interview, take your time and if you
want you ask them that, I would need 1 or 2 minutes to consider the offer and then think
about what career progress, what career chances, what is the career growth this offer will
make to you, because it is a take it or leave it kind of situation. To summarize the chapter there are 6 types
of interviews and they are given on this slide. The first is information-gathering, then appraisal,
then persuasive, then exit, then counseling and the last is the hiring interview which
we will consider at more depth in the next lecture, lecture number 31. Effective interviews are well-structured interactions,
because there is a there is a limitation of time as well as there is the idea that time
has to be valued. So, both parties do not want to waste time
and therefore it’s well planned how the questions will be asked. And of course, you as an interviewee also
are planning, how to answer the questions in the shortest possible manner. Then the questions are the heart of the interview
and the primary means of collecting data, because basically the interviews meant to
seek all information from you and then decide based on that information or data they now
possess. There are four basic types of questions asked
in an interview, closed and open, primary and secondary. To move further good interviewers and interviewees
both work hard, both of them they work hard during the interview, because at the same
time they are functioning as information seeker, information giver, and decision maker. I have at the end a small funny video from
Tom Hanks, when he was young. Yeah. Hold on just a moment, please. What is he got? Hey, oh my god. Social security number. 32 70 25. What is it? Our locker combination. Mr. Baskin, Mr. Baskin. Yes, yes. Personnel director will see you now. Your son can wait out here. Ok, son, you should sit down and do not give
the lady any trouble now. Sure, dad. This way. Do not forget look him in the eye. A couple of numbers missing on your social
security. Oh, oh 12. One two it says here, you have got 4 years
experience. Yes. All on computers. Yes. Where did you go to school? It was called George Washington. Oh, GW. My brother in law got his doctorate there. Did you pledge? Yes. Every morning. It happened again. David the girl is absolutely useless; you
have got to give me someone who knows what she is doing. Excuse me, I am not getting any of my mail
nothing has been filed, ever since she got engaged, my life has been a disaster. You know she came so highly recommended. She spent the last 3 months writing down her
married name, Mrs. Judy Hicks, Mrs. Donald Hicks, Mrs. Judy Mitchellson Hicks; sometimes
with the hyphens, sometimes without a hyphen, sometimes she spells the hyphen. Ah Well
Employment. When can you start? Soon. And quite a positive ending to that lecture
and that movie segment also as such. These are the references, I have used in the
preparation of this lecture. And I would like to thank you for being with
me, and God bless you. We shall meet soon.