Welcome to this online presentation on finding tests, surveys and other measures for your research. We’re here at Webster University library at the home campus in St. Louis and we welcome all who are attending this online/live presentation and also those who will be watching us when it’s recorded and shared later. My name is Mary Anne Erwin and I’m the Business and Management librarian here at Webster University library. With me tonight is Kathy Gaynor, who is the subject specialist or the subject liaison for Counseling, Psychology(which includes the gerontology program), Legal studies and Religious studies.So, Kathy and I hopefully will bring a wealth of information to you tonight about finding tests. So our agenda is some definitions and characteristics of what tests and measures are, how to identify them and locate them, and identify things that you might want to use for your research and then, how to get/how to deal with copyright and permissions. Particularly, if you think that you might want to use a test in your research and/or may be modify one. So first definition, what is measurement? According to PsycInfo, “measurement is the process and tools used in assessment of human subjects”. So there’s all types of measurement instruments like for: achievement, aptitude, attitude, cognitive abilities intelligence, motor skills, personality social and interpersonal traits in relationships. So,there are many ways that we might use tests and measures in the disciplines. For instance in Business, there might be tests of job applicants, a special education teacher may test the students for ability to understand or perform a task, counselors my test for knowledge of parenting concepts, in human services you might survey the operations in a group home to see if they’re meeting that residents’ needs, and in advertising you might test the effects of ads on consumer behavior. Another thing that we would like to discuss is the difference between Clinical/Professional instruments vs Research Applications. So within the Clinical/Professional aspect, usually tests or instruments are used with a specific individual or small group with whom the professional is working, they might be called Diagnostic tests. They might measure a baseline to make comparisons of the individuals to larger populations. For research purposes, generally tests or instruments are used in examining our understanding of human nature, and often will examine/be used with a large number of subjects within a total population. There are different methods that are used with tests, for example, college students and instructors are familiar with tests that are used in the classroom: multiple choice, true/false, essay, short answer etc. There’s surveys and questionnaires that are used often to look at people’s response, their perceptions of things or their reports of their own psychological types and then there’s performance measures that measure skills and improvement for example after training. And we also need to say a few words about access. One category of access is called commercial or published tests. These are the typically widely used tests sold by large publishers like the ACT or the SAT for entrance into college, the Myers-Briggs type indicator which is a personality or psychological type instrument that’s used for individuals. So, the thing to remember is that when we say commercial or published it seems kind of contradictory but commercial or published tests are those tests that the test itself is what is published. We contrast that with non-commercial or “unpublished” tests, which are typically small-scale tests found in books, journal articles, dissertations etc. and in that case, the test or the instrument is ancillary or supports the research described in the journal article or book so the test itself is not the main published work, it’s the research that surrounds that. So with both commercial and non-commercial tests, they will likely be copyrighted. They might be copyrighted by the author or the publisher and even if there’s no fee to use, you must still cite and you may need to deal with permissions and Kathy will cover that later. The steps for identifying and locating the measures that we’re going to use tonight are, first, determine what you want to measure and who your subjects are. Second, search the relevant literature to identify and locate possible measures. Three, evaluate measures for possible use in your research and, four, obtain necessary permissions, so let’s start to unpack those. First, you’re going to determine what you want to measure. So for instance, what is your research question. You might do a literature review to see what other people have published on your research topic. You might identify theory or other research or other researchers that overlap your questions, so what has already–what research has already been done on your topic. Then, you might be able to identify what tests or measures did they use–did that other researchers use and can you use those too, as measurement instruments for your specific setting or age group. So you want to make sure that when you read about–when you you’re reading the journal article for example and it’s talking about a test, how did they use it and is it appropriate for your subjects, who do you want to measure. So for example, testing a job applicant to see if he or she already knows about creating spreadsheets is different from testing a job applicants aptitude to work with numbers. Surveying someone’s views on the meaning of happiness is different from measuring his or her level of self-esteem. So think about who are your subjects and does the test that you’ve found/you’ve identified in your literature review, does that meet/is it valid for your particular group. Second, you’re going to search the relevant literature to identify and locate possible measures. One danger here, if you’re using/if you’ve identified a testing instrument on the Internet, be careful. Be sure you check out to make sure that the author of that instrument gave permission for the test to be posted–just because it’s there, doesn’t mean that the author or the copyright holder knows that it’s been published there and also be very careful and check out has the test or survey been adequately tested so that you can know that you can really measure what you think you’re measuring–those are elements of validity and reliability. For this online presentation, we’re going to focus on those authoritative well designed instruments used for research and we’re going to point out how you can find those particular databases and books using a research guide that we’ve created here at the library. So from the library homepage at library.webster.edu it’s near the bottom left-hand side under “Research help”, you click on “Research Guides” it will take you to our home page for our research guides. So you can search for this research guide called “Finding Tests” by searching for “tests” by using the search box in the upper right-hand corner. Below that, you can see the guide lists and there’s an alphabetical list and then in the main section or middle section, “Guide by Academic Department” under the category “General and Multidisciplinary, this particular research guide is also listed under capstone and thesis research, you can find it listed on that guide as well. Here is the home page for the “Finding tests and other instruments” research guide, the URL is libguides.webster.edu/tests. The main page of this guide in the center section talks about databases for finding tests and subject databases for finding research and we’ll talk more about that–mostly about those in just a moment, so that’s going to be our main focus but a few more things. Along the left-hand side of that home page, you can see some tutorials and guidelines and standards so there are some links to other resources for finding additional information on this topic, including this recorded webinar will be posted to that to that box on the left hand side of guide and then on the right-hand margin is two boxes for finding assistance, so if you need help with using these databases, please do let either your subject liaison know there’s a link there finding your subject liaison or just reach out to our ask a librarian service for help, call the reference desk or click that box for the Ask a librarian page and there’s various ways to access/get help and the reference librarians will connect you with the subject specialist if you need one. Other tabs on this particular guide that we want to talk about are “Tests Reprinted in Books” and so these are “unpublished” measures because the central idea is to publish a book in the collection and it just happens to include some measures and sometimes you can find the unpublished test reprinted in these books. So the example that we’re seeing on the screen, there’s 2 Business books that have examples/that contain examples and the actual tests/instruments, we see one social science example –“The Handbook of Tests and Measurement in Sducation and Social Sciences”, which is near the bottom of the powerpoint slide, but there are others listed. So there’s tests for nursing, personality tests etc that are linked on this page and I would remind you or would suggest that if you’re going to use these books or others like them, it’s a good idea to read the introductory pages of the book, they will tell you what types of instruments are in the collection and often will tell you how you may use them and how to get copyright and permission if you need to do that. Another tab of this particular research guide will show you the test descriptions and design, so here are some books that will help you too. There’s just kind of two categories, there’s descriptions of commercial and non-commercial tests and reviews in some of these books and also some books on how to design an instrument for research or clinical use. Also these will also discuss measurement concepts like validity, reliability, sample size and statistical analysis of your instrument so Kathy will discuss these more fully later in the presentation, she will also talk more about the ethical standards of test instrument use. Returning to the main database/the main page of the “Finding tests and other instruments guide” and want to talk a little more in depth about databases. So in the main section (the center section) of that page, you have two types of databases. I’m going to cover the subject database for finding research first, so here you’re going to choose a database that covers your discipline and you’re going to use that to identify the relevant literature on your topic. For example, if you’re a business student and you contacted me for help, I would suggest that you start your research in Business Source Complete, it’s our largest business database and you would take your research question and do a search looking for the concepts or theories that are covered, that you want to cover in your own research and so you would do that in Business Source Complete. You might also search PsycInfo, because PsycInfo reports all manner of research using human subjects and it’s a really deep database, its multidisciplinary and Kathy is going to show you the wonders of PsycInfo in a minute but in both of those databases you may be able to identify some tests or surveys that other researchers have used and then you might be able to use those to study your or similar research questions concepts or theories. Some journal articles may include the instrument often in the appendix and journal articles will most likely discuss whether the instrument they used was shown to be reliable and a valid measure of what they intended to measure, these are important concepts if you are also going to use that particular measure. Then use the test databases to find the actual tests or information about the tests. So the Mental Measurements Yearbook & Tests in Print is from a publisher called Buros and they’re commercial tests, also known as published tests– the tests are the main reason. So, you’ll have a description of the publisher, a description of the tests and the publisher information and fees for how much it’s going to cost, you might also see reviews about the tests that are done by external people. The PsycTests database, on the other hand, covers mostly non-commercial or “unpublished” measures so you’ll get a description and the publisher information, you’ll see what permissions are needed to use the test, it will tell you if it’s if there’s a fee or it’s free to use and sometimes you’ll see the complete or partial test where possible. Here’s a search for “employee engagement” in this PsycTests database, so I searched for the keywords “employee engagement”, below the search box I can add limits and this is totally optional. So you’ll see that there’s a limit for fees, so I can say ok, show me all whether it has a fee or not or I could say I only want to see those tests on “employee engagement” that do not have a fee. You can search by instrument type, so it could be a checklist or a survey or a questionnaire so you could add that. You can search for permissions like the permission that you may use it for researching and teaching, so you might add that and in this example I’ve added that, “may use for research and teaching”. You can look for the record type, is it a test that’s under development or is it a test that’s been used and then you also have to the right of that, gender, language, population group and supporting documentation, like does it have the answer sheet. So when you’re starting, do think about limiting or limit your limits. Only maybe add one or two to your keyword search because right now when you’re exploring the database–when you’re first exploring the database, you want to kind of give yourself the widest number of tests as you possibly can. Now you could also, if you know the name of the test, if you discovered that while you’re doing your literature review, you could of course type the name of that test into the search box and search for that specific tests. So here is the test that met my search criteria. It’s called the “Employee Empowerment Scale”, you can see on the left-hand menu it has the PDF full-text so it has the actual test instrument or at least partial. So I could click on that in a minute and show you what that looks like but in the test record itself, you can see that I’ve marked the research article in which the authors created and tested this instrument, so that’s marked and that information then you could use to find and read the original research and Kathy is going to show you how to do that and that kind of search in a minute as well. Also here you have the author’s contact information in case you need to reach out to the lead researcher is generally given, so you can reach out to them for questions about how they use the test and here’s the PDF of that. For the record, we haven’t shown the scale items here because it’s showing the PsycTests citations, the same citation that we saw before and it was retrieved from the PsycTests database but it’s also showing here the permissions, so the test may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. It tells you how you must control the distribution and what that means and it says any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not allowed and always include a credit line that contains the source citation and the copyright owner when writing about or using the test and that is just standard good practice that you should always cite someone else’s work and we haven’t included the scale items because we are not allowed to. Now we are going to switch over and Kathy is going to tell you about all the things I’ve promised that she’s going to tell you about. We’re going to take a minute to ask and see if there’s any questions. Well thanks Mary Anne, that was a good overview of getting started in looking for tests. I want to spend a little bit of time on the PsycInfo database because this is a really valuable source. Now I know you might be thinking well wait a minute, I’m in Business or Management or you know, some other subject area, I’m not in Psychology. That’s okay, because this database has resources for practically any subject area. On the screen, you can see some examples of articles that I found in PsycInfo dealing with anything from leadership styles to school-based bullying to nursing to the elections– which would be very timely right now. So you can see that you don’t need to be a “psych person” to get some good use out of this database. Now the other question you might have is well, why do I need to use this database if I’ve already looked up some tests in the PsycTests database. Well, the PsycTests database doesn’t include everything. It’s a growing database and very valuable, but there are an awful lot of instruments that are not covered in it and we’ll see some examples of that in a minute. So the PsycInfo database is a really good complement to use along with the other resources Mary Anne mentioned. So here’s an example of the search form in the PsycInfo database and I’m doing a sample search on the topic of “college students” and “procrastination”, which I think we can all identify with. You can see that I typed “college students”, my population, in the first box and the issue that I wanted to focus on, “procrastination” in the second box. At the bottom of the screen you can see that when i did the search this is an article that came up called “Procrastination and self-esteem among university students” so if I want to know more about that, I would click on the title of it to go to the full record and the full record in the PsycInfo database is going to include more information about the authors, where they’re affiliated or where they’re working, it will generally include a really helpful abstract or summary telling you what it’s about and it will tell you what tests or measures were used, if any, in this particular article. So when I’m looking at that full record, I can scan down and I might see a section called “Tests & Measures” as you can see on the screen. One nice thing that PsycInfo does is they will look through every article that they get in and if that research study has used a particular test, whether they are the large commercial tests that Mary Ann mentioned earlier or the small non-commercial/”unpublished” tests that might appear in a journal article or a book, they will list those in this “Tests & Measures” section, now if they don’t use any instruments then you won’t see this section. So you can see this particular article has two items listed and the first one called the “Lay Procrastination Scale” is used in this particular study. Now if you were interested in that, because that is our sample topic “procrastinatio”, then you might say ok, I want to learn more about that, how can I look that particular scale up and in this particular case what you would need to do is get a hold of this article on procrastination and self-esteem among university students and look at the end of it in the list of references, the bibliography at the end to see the citation for that particular scale because if an author has used any scale or test in his or her research and they write it up in a journal article or any sort of publication, they need to provide a citation and that’s what you see at the bottom of the screen. So if I wanted to learn more about that, then I would go and need to find this particular article in the “Journal of Research in Personality” by Mr. Lay. Now if you run into this situation and you say, okay, I need to find out if the library has that particular journal. You can go to our homepage and go to the link that says “Request books or articles” and that will walk you through how you can determine if we have that particular journal article and how to get a hold of it and if we don’t have it how we can order it for you at no charge to you so those instructions are all under that “Request books or articles” link. Now the other item that we found in this article called the “Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale”. You can see right after that it has a link, the DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier and then there is a unique identification number and it is a link, and that link takes you to the PsycTests database and in other words this particular scale, the Rosenberg Scale is included in or information on it, is included in the PsycTests database. So this is another advantage of using the PsycInfo database because it has a linkage with other resources, in this case PsycTests, so they link back and forth between each other and if we go over and follow that link to the PsycTests database, we’ll see information similar to what you saw in Mary Anne’s example earlier, with the description of the test and I didn’t put everything on the screen because it wouldn’t fit but you would have information on the author of it and other references to it and then as you can see you also have the permissions that were recorded for this particular scale and you can see up in the top left corner there is a link to the PDF which indicates that all or part of the test is included in PsycTests. Now let’s go back to PsycInfo, because I mentioned that if an article uses tests or measures then when you’re looking at the full record for that article there will be a section called “Tests & Measures” and it will list anything that they used. Well you can actually search that directly in the PsycInfo database. So, in this example, I’ve put our subject of interest “procrastination” in the box and then the corresponding box to the right I’ve set for the “Tests & Measures” field. So, in other words, this search will go through the entire database and just look for items that have that “Tests & Measures” field and pull out anything that mentions the word “procrastination”. Kathy just so just so we’re clear, the Business Source Complete database and other disciplinary databases like ERIC for educational materials may not, well I know Business Source Complete will not have this field to search the “Tests & Measures” field so that is unique to PsycInfo, so yet another reason that you should think about searching more than one database. Thanks, Mary Anne. That’s a good point, you will see differences from database to database in terms of the features that they offer and you know we’ll talk about a little bit later but a librarian would be glad to work with you and make suggestions as to what database would be most fruitful for you to search and how to use these special features. In this case when i did this search, it found a number of items, this is just one example. This is an article called “Out of sight, out of time?” and you can see in the record for it, the “Tests & Measures” field lists a number of instruments that were used in this particular article. You can see that there are several that mention “procrastination” and because there is no link after them, that means that these are not in the PsycTests database. The last three at the bottom do have that link, so those are in PsycTests but all the other ones above that aren’t so if you had only searched PsycTests and hadn’t got into the PsycInfo database, you would have missed all of these other instruments. And again you can get into this article “Out of sight, out of time?”, read it, look at the reference list at the end and track some of these instruments down if you’re interested in them. A final little feature I want to show you in PsycInfo. This looks very similar to what we just did, putting “procrastination” or our subject in that first box and setting the corresponding box to the right to “Tests & Measures” but notice that in the second box, we wrote the word “appended” and set the corresponding box to the right for that item to “Tests & Measures” as well. So what happens in PsycInfo is that, as the PsycInfo indexers are looking through this journal article and making a list of all the tests or scales used in it. They are also noting if the article includes the actual instrument, usually in an appendix at the very end of the article, and if so they will put the word “appended” after the title. So when I did the search, here’s an example of an item that came up, this is called “The therapist’s ultimate solution book” and it lists the “Tests & Measures” that were covered and you can see that the ones that have the word “appended” after the title, are ones that are actually included in this particular source so you can tell at a glance what is in the source and maybe the other ones that you’re going to have to track down through the reference list. The last three items again have the link to the information in the PsycTests database. So that’s a little bit of a review of what the PsycInfo database can do for you and Mary Anne mentioned the other subject databases and all. Let’s move on and talk about how you’re going to evaluate all these measures that you’re finding, you know. You can get all copies of all these items but how can you tell which ones are going to be useful or not and I’m looking at a question from recording which asked “have all tests and scales in PsycInfo been validated and how do I identify if a particular scale has been validated?” That’s a good question. PsychInfo itself does not deal with whether a test is valid or not, for that, you’re going to have to look at the individual journal article and see what they say about it. So it’s not something that is in PsycInfo as something I can just put in my search and say give me all the valid and reliable tests on this subject. No, all PsycInfo does is say here’s tests that show up when you search for “procrastination”, but to tell if I’m gonna be able to use them in my study, if they are sufficiently quality enough to use in my study, I’m going to have to do some reading and I’m going to have to look at some of those articles that talked about them. And often you can find an article often written by the person developing the scale, where the purpose of the article is to measure the validity and reliability and they will actually talk about how they developed the test and how they addressed those issues of validity and reliability. So it’s not something the database does for you, it’s something you will learn from reading in the particular journal article. In the database that Mary Anne mentions, the Mental Measurements Yearbook, which is the database for those large commercial tests like the Myers-Briggs and the SAT, that has reviews of tests and they will, in the review, comment on issues such as validity and reliability. So you’re going to have to do a little evaluation from it. You can see on the screen what we’re talking about when we say validity and reliability. Validity, again, does that test measure what it is designed to measure and is that what you’re looking for. So if you’re looking for test that measures critical thinking, for example, and all that test does is ask someone to recall a factor or date for memory, they’re not really using their critical thinking skills so there’s not a match there so again you’re going to have to look at that and then reliability so is this test basically consistent, so if I take it today and then I take it a week from now, am I going to get pretty much the same score on that, I should. In addition to these issues, there’s a lot of practical issues to think about, think about time and I know time is something none of us have a lot of and especially if you’re in graduate school– that’s an issue. Some of these tests take more time to administer than others, you know. Is it a test that you can simply pass out to a group or send them online or is it a test that’s going to be more time consuming to administer. Obviously cost, hopefully as a budget allows, you can find a lot of of those non-commercial/inexpensive tests that are still of good quality that you could use in your study. Availability of subjects, you know. You need to look at who is the test designed for? So if you have a test that was designed to be given to adolescents but you want to give it to middle-aged managers, that’s not, again, a good match. That’s not what the test was designed for and if you do want to give it to managers or adolescents, do you have a population of those people readily available that you can use. Ease of administration, how easy is it? Some of these tests require you to administer it to each person individually, while others can be just given out to a group on mass. so what does this test require, look into that. And then also the issue of results so can you get results or can you yourself interpret the results. It may be a simple matter of just computing a standard deviation or arithmetic mean of the results, think about the classic Rorscharch test with the inkblot, you know, something like that takes special training to do and that’s the case with some of these tests so again be cautious about what you end up using in your study. Now on the research guides that Mary Anne has shown you before with all those tabs across the top, we do have a tab for validity and reliability and we’ve linked to some short helpful resources for those. For example, down the center under “Websites”, there’s a link to a source that helps you interpret reliability and validity information about tests. I know that some of you might be confronting this for the first time, and I think some of these sources might be helpful to you in terms of getting a sense without taking a, you know, 15-week course in measurement about how you can can interpret these particular concepts to see if that test is going to work for you. So this tab would be good for you as is the tab called Test Description and Design, which will also talk about reliability and validity. Finally let’s talk about permissions, so again it’s as Mary Anne mentioned, it’s important to assume that the measures you find are going to be copyrighted. I would just assume that right out. You may find that, perhaps, this is a website that the author himself or herself has put up and has put out a statement that you’re free to use it or as we saw in the PsycTests database that some of those instruments are marked as available to be used for research or teaching so some of those permissions are pretty upfront but otherwise you’re going to need to find out what the copyright status is and probably are going to need to get a permission to use it. And, again, you can go back to the PsycTest database if your test is in there and look at the authors information and track them down. In this day and age, something like Google or Google Scholar works great. Some of you might be familiar with a social media platform called LinkedIn, which is kind of a Facebook for professionals, in the sense that it’s a great place to find people, to find their current contact information there. If you’re having real trouble and there’s another instrument that you can use instead, that might be another solution too so don’t you feel your wedded to a particular instrument if you’re just not sure of the copyright or the permissions and you just can’t find anything further about this. Kathy could you speak a little bit about whether, if you wanted to take some several tests even and adapt them or modify them, choose questions out of them and make your own instrument. Yeah it’s my understanding that you would still need to get permission from that. I would agree, that’s a definite, if you’re going to adapt a test even if PsycTests says that you may use it without contacting the author, they mean use it as they published it, if you’re going to take questions out of it and create a separate instrument, you really need to get their permission. Now in addition to getting permission that you might need to do from the copyright holder, whether that is the individual author or it could be the journal where the item was published or a company that sells that test, you may need to get permission from Webster University or if you’re a student somewhere else from that particular institution. There are a lot of permissions that were/ have been put in place to protect both the researcher and the humans/the people who are going to be the ones taking your tests are being evaluated. You’ve probably heard of some of the famous experiments such as the Stanford prison experiment, which went very wrong and pointed out the need to have some protections and ethical standards in place to protect those people. So, Webster University does have what’s called an Institutional Review Board, often referred to as an IRB and you can see the link to it on the screen and we also have it linked in our research guide. Now, I will say that not every class project is going to need IRB approval and all the paperwork involved there and this website has a lot of good information to help you determine whether you do or not, it has people you can contact and talk over. Obviously, your first stop should be your professor and talking to him or her about the project and what’s required but this is very standard in institutions, whether they be universities or hospitals or companies, to have some sort of an office that provides oversight here. And besides from your own institution where you’re attending graduate school or your undergraduate program such as Webster, you’re own workplace if you choose to use co-workers there for your project, you might also need to get permission from there. If you wanted to survey all the middle managers in your company, that might need to go through–if you don’t have an IRB at your company, it may need to be your Human Resources Office or maybe an office of research. So you know, in this day and age when people are very litigious and you want to make sure that you are dotting all the I’s and crossing all the T’s and making sure that you, again, protect yourself and protect the people that are participating in your research study. On our research guide that, again, has all the tabs across the top, there is one for Ethics, Standards and Copyright. We do have a link to the Webster IRB on that page, we have a few books that might have some helpful information, helpful chapters for you and there are also some assorted websites. Finally, I want to just remind you of how you can get assistance from a librarian. I know a lot of students have come to me looking for tests in the areas that that I cover, it can be kind of interesting detective work to try to track some of these down and questions are going to come up and we are available for you and really encourage you to ask questions if you get stuck along the way. So if you would go back to our home page and go back to that column called “Research help”, you remember that that second link “Research guides” is where we clicked originally to access our “Finding Tests” guide. Well let’s click on the link above that called “Ask a Librarian”, and you can see on this page over on the left are ways that you can contact us. We have professional librarians staffing our reference desk during the day and in the evenings and weekends and be sure to use our toll-free number if you are outside the St. Louis area to contact them. We also have email, especially for our students at our international campuses, you’ll probably want to use email to send us a question or a little further down, we do have a chat service which is available 24 hours a day/7 days a week and so you can also chat with us. Directly above that chat area is a link called “Contact your subject liaison librarian”. As Mary Anne mentioned earlier, we have librarians for practically every program that is available here at Webster and that person would be glad to work with you and try to answer your questions and help you out as you work on this particular project. Mary Anne and I want to thank you for sitting in with us tonight. We will be sending you, within a week or so, a number of items. We are going to send you a copy of this recording. We’re going to also send you the copy of these slides that you’ve been viewing and so you’ll have those for your reference and I think that’s all we’re going to be sending them. We do have a question, let me read it. “PsycInfo has a reliability checkbox under subject, would you recommend using it?” I am not familiar with that. I’m not sure where that is under subject. So why don’t we check on that and get back to you. So sometimes the answer is that we don’t know but we’ll check it out. So we’ll check that out and get back to you. Are there any other questions while we’re finishing up, we’re right at six o’clock so we’re probably going to stop the recording now and please let us know, using our “Ask a Librarian” service or reaching out to your subject librarian if we can help.