Basic Residential Wiring

Basic Residential Wiring


Hi my name is Sam Maltese Today we are going to talking about wiring residential homes basically wooden
structures in most wooden structures and
residential we use a cable called NMD90 Non-metallic sheath cable also known has Romex cable most of these cables go into outlet boxes in different sizes and at different heights there is nothing in the code book that says what height a box needs to be mounted at but in general we mount our
switches for lights at 52 inches our counter plugs for the kitchen at 42 inches and usually in our washrooms our GFI plugs at 45 inches are plugs along the wall are usually
mounted around 16 inches to the bottom the box
could be 14 I guess said there is no specific rule
that requires a height and whatever is more comfortable for the
customer or the electrican that is installing the outlets. so once again in this case
we used the bottom of the box around 16 inches as I mentioned before our counter should
be at 42inches washroom would be at 45 inches our switches will be at 52 some of the most common materials use and residential wiring in homes are on this table we are going to discuss very general so we can know what kind of material are needed what kind of devices we will be using, and how to install them here you see the five most common cables
used in residential wiring you have the 14/2 Non-metallic sheath cable or romex 12/2 cable use for baseboard heaters is most common
use for lights and plugs and everything else you have 14/3 that maybe use for split plugs in the kitchen or for 3-way switches you have your 10/3 that is used for your dryer and
you have it 3 conductor number 8 wire that is use for your stove this is
designed to handle your 40 amps designed to handle 30 amps this can 15 amps 20 amps and 15 amps on most of these cables on the outside sheath
you will find markings indicating the size a wire and the
conductors you notice on the stove cable it says
that it is an 8 gauge wire and three conductors 3c so 8 American Wire Gauge three conductor this a repeat for your 14/2 , 10/3 and your 14/3 they all have markings on it hear somebody devices you’ll be
installing your outlet boxes you have a single-pole switch you have a
three way switch a regular u-ground receptacle a GFI plugged, A stove receptacle and a dry receptacle your single pole switches such as this one has two screws on the
side there both the same color there’s no
distinction between be silver or brass as in the other devices but in general
the hot wires is connected on the top screw and the wire going back to the light is
connected on the bottom, in a three-way switch you will notice that there is screws on both sites there’s two brass
screws on the top and a black screw at the bottom the
black screw indicates the common point the three way switch and the travelers in the in a 14/3 wire go on the brass screws when dealing
with the receptacles you have a green screw for the ground the silver screws on this side indicate
the neutral and if you flip the plug over you see these
screws are brass that indicates that is where
the hot wire goes or the black. so the neutral and the ground are on the same side.
you’ll also notice as if you look at the front that one of these slots is longer than the
other the shorts slot represents the hot wire where the brass is the GFI is the same as a plug it has two
different colors on both sides for hot and for neutral with the green at the top Your stove plug has three prongs the u being the
ground right below would be the neutral and
these would be the two hot if you turn it around they’re usually
marked on here what color they take this takes a ground a hot, hot and the neutral says White there and you
see is says X & Y over here this plug also know in the code book as a 14- 50R so 14-50R is the name for a stove receptacle the other receptacle very similar to that is the dry receptacle it is known as a
14-30R the 30 represents 30 amps just like the 50 represents 50 amps on
the stove the only difference between the two you will
notice that the configuration here is different from the from the stove the stove has all straight straight slots the dryer has this little “L”so that is a good way of knowing you’re
dealing with a dryer receptacle just remember that “L” represent laundry the back is the
same as the stove that has four screws one takes a ground one takes a neutral
and a red and black are the hots there are 4 types a box I want to talk about
today the most common is known as the 1104 it is 2 inches wide 3 inches long and this one here is 2 1/2 inches
deep that’s a standard box that’s used for most
which is a plugs you’ll also notice at the back there are screws for fastening your ground wires there is clamps top and bottom so you can bring your
cables in the top and on the side here some will have
these indicators indicating that they line up with the stud so that
when you put the drywall there box isn’t recessed will show that later. Same type of box
but in this case it’s just a little deeper the reason is
deeper is so that I if your are using it for a GFI plug there is
more room at the back for wires so when installing GFI plug
we usually use a box it is three-inches deep. another box that’s used is the 14 by 11/16 that is
made use for your dryer and stove plug. much bigger box for much bigger receptacle another box that is used quite often is these new foam boxes that are made out of plastic these are used on the exterior walls
of a house the create vapor barrier and no moisture gets in or all cold air gets in
if you lookaround you see it it’s got foam on top so when you pierce with the
cable the kinda seals around it and preventing moisture from coming in
and you get no drafts in your home the three most common staples use for
romex wire are the S1 , S2 and S4 S1 is designed to handle
14/2 and 12/ 2 cable S2 is designed for 14/3 S4 is designed for your stove cable so depending on the size the cable you use the correct staple as you can see that’s designed for your stove cable This is design for your 14/2 or 14/2 and your S2 designed for your 14/3 cable each cable has a different height so it
stops at the wood and giving it enough space
in between to the cable doesn’t get crushed the
whole intention up the staple is to just keep the cable in place and
not to fasten it too tight but just prevented
from moving around another type of connector that is used are
these plastic connectors that take cables by just pushing them in
and they passed through in lock in place they do not slip back when using electrical devices or anything to do with electricity most
products will come with a CSA approval look for the symbol that means it has been
approved to be used in Canada is the box for Staples number one and if you look at it very
closely though says it is designed for one single cable of 14/2 or one single
cable of 12/2 if you move over to the next box and we were to zoom in a
bit you’ll notice that this staple can handle a 14/2, 12/2 a 14/3 a 12/3 10/2 and a 10/3 so obviously it can handle many more cables that are thicker it also says you put two cables
together of 14/2 and two cable of 12/2 to so you can basically stacked one atop the other and still
uses this cable if you move over to the connector the connector says a grey connector we were showing says
you can only put one cable in up 14/2 or one cable 14/3 or one cable 12/2 or 10 /2 not two cables at
the same time so this cable so this cable the conductors are only designed to take 1 cable at a time there are
manufactures the design and connectors that will take two cables but you need to have this cover or this information to prove the
electrical inspector that your equipment can take two cables if you have this information then it meets code Now that we know some
materials and devices and boxes and connectors and staples we are going to be using we can now move on to the proper way of installing the cables into the box in
general most boxes require at least 6 inches of wires after they’ve been installed box
as That is due to Canadian code so how much this wire outside sheath do I need to strip so that
when I’m done I have six inches wire. I usually the 10 inch rule and I can usually line it up between here
and my elbow roughly ten inches or you can take
hand with the thumb out and a fist that should be about 10 inches roughly that much is 10 inches for me the more experience
you have you learn to quick decide what his 10 inches. so you to take your cable and you take your knife using a 14/2 you can run it down
the middle to strip the cable along copper and take the outer sheath cut it off be careful not to nick
the wires take the outer sheath off. so you have the black and white and ground leftover and then you’re gonna install it into
the box Top of each the of the boxes are the little holes you can take out so you can put it into the into the
box and they make your connections. we’ll
move in closer so you can see exactly how that’s done okay we are zoomed in the box I’m gonna take
my cable now and gonna put it into the back of one of holes and bring the cable forward I put a little bit of curve so when I push it in it comes forward doesn’t get caught in the back and I want the cable
the point where I can just see the white in the back. you want to see the sheath and you tighten the clamp on the screws. not too tight just
enough enough so when you tug on it, it doesn’t come loose
and still stays in the box so that’s what we’re looking for is for
the cable not to move what I then do is take my black wire move that up and white wire leaving only my only my copper in any box you should be grounding the
box to the ground conductor whether it be a
switch a plug or the stove or dryer they all need to
be grounded so you gonna take this copper wire you gonna wrap it around the screw in the
back in a clockwise direction you always do it clockwise so when you
tighten the screw it actually pulls in the copper so you can see I wrapped it around clockwise and now I’m going to tighten the screw so that the copper now is bonded to the box. You will notice now that my copper and if I take my black and
white wires down now you’ll notice that they are a little shorter. the copper wire is a little
shorter because I wrapped around the screw so what I usually do is trim them all the same length so that the when making the connection
to your plug they all look and connect very evenly so I will trim those two and now if I were to measure from the edge of the box to the end of my cables I should have six inches. We have re-position the camera now so you get a
better view of the length on the cable remember the code
requires six inches from the edge the box. there will be drywall here so I gotta see is the edge in this box at the drywall we take our tape measure put it there and you will notice that we are about roughly at six inches and that’s the minimum amount of wire
require as per code. so turn that way you see
the six that we have six inches minimum I could have 8 I could have nine
I have to have six that is a minimum code requirement the next step would be to either hook up a plug if we were down towards the floor or in this case we would hook up a switch. either one the plug is obviously gonna need a ground
so you need to have this ground wire out most switches do not
have a ground so if you want you can tuck this ground
wire nicely back towards the back so it and interfere does not touch when
some of the black wires in general when dealing with
switches I like to cut the ground wire back at the screw and leave
nothing coming forward and I just leave the the ground with my
receptacles we are now ready to hook up our plug
or switch so I usually like to strip an inch off insulation off the white and inch of the black insulator this allows me to take my strippers and
make a loop such as that make a loop make a loop and once again when putting these wires on the screws you should always be
rapping the conductor in a clockwise rotation so
when you tighten the screwed its sucks the wiring in. if using the switch the Hotwire would go on the top and the wire going to the light would go on the
bottom so we’re going to hook up the plug in this case the black wire or go
on the brass screw. once again in a clockwise direction wrap the wire
around and tighten up the screw the screws on plugs and
switches is is a green Robbie wrap the white wire on the silver
screw followed by the ground it’s on the same side as neutral should be no wires sticking
out everything should be underneath screws you’re ready to install the plug push the wires in there is no code that says which way the plug should go whether it be with the ground up or down person like they have the ground on the top but most people are familiar looking at
it with the ground the bottom the screw that come with the plugs are 6/32 they go into they go into the holes here. and if he had drywall here they be fastening them here and you would tighten that to a point where
it stops on the drywall we have no drywall just a demonstration but this could be a switch could be a plug the same principle applies to all
devices so for today s a general rules for putting in 14/2 wire into a box same rule applies for 14/3 or 12/2 to or stove you always need
need that six-inches coming out from the box